Otoe-Missouria - English


r


ra1rahinterrogative variantre2plural variantre2imperative/interrogative variantre2
ra2rahisverbBlue Sky AboveThe Sky Above Is Blue
ra-1rahyouverbSubject Pronoun Prefix part 1pfxRihų inų ragri je?Did you come home with your mother?Dagure ra'ų je?What are you doing?Dagure raji ragųnsda?What do you want to eat?Mayą akiwaðą ra'ų ke.You made all things.unspec. comp. formąnrabeere'iere'iwiragi-rahurahuwiranyihąuragwewere'iwewere'ithouverbSubject Pronoun Prefix part 1pfxFree Variantda-1ða-1Second-Person Singular Conjugationratųrah-TOOⁿyou stand by meyou tread on meyou stand on methou - by meyou stand onyou tread onyou stand by someone elseyou seeyou-all seeyou-all thinkyou thinkyou hopeyou pityyou are (while in a standing position)you were (while in a standing position)you forgive (him/her/it)you-all forgive (him/her/it)you returnyou returnedyou come homeyou batheyou reach a standing positionyou-all reach a standing positionyou sityou liveyou are (while moving)you close (door or gate)you fasten (door or gate)you secure a field by fastening a gateyou impede the advance or retreat of someone or somethingyou check the advance or retreat of someone or somethingyou cut off the advance or retreat of someone or somethingyou areyou carryyou join withyou followyou forgive themyou-all forgive themyou teachyou forgive usyou-all forgive usyou join themyou follow themyou join usyou follow us
ra-2rahIt is prefixed to a large class of verbs and verbal roots, and signifies that the action is done with the mouth, lips, teeth, or tongue - by biting, talking, etc.verbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxIt is prefixed to adjectives, and sometimes to nouns, changing them into verbs signifying "to speak of as such," or "to make so with the mouth"verbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxIt is prefixed to a large class of verbs and verbal roots, and shows that the action is done with the mouth, lips, teeth, or tongue, by biting, eating, sucking, talking, singing, crying, reading, etc.verbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxby means of the mouth (biting, speaking, etc.)verbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxby means of the mouth and/or teethverbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxby means of the mouth, lips, teeth, or tongue, by biting, talking, etc.verbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxspeak of as suchverbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxmake so with the mouthverbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxcause with the mouthverbInstrumental, By Means Of 1pfxFree Variantða-2ðahmake two objects adhere, for the benefit of another, by pressing them together between the lips or teethbite hard on (once)pull a cord with the teethpress water out of an object and upon anything, with the mouthpeel off the skin, as of fruit, with the teethpeel off the skin, as of a fruit, with the teethspill water when drinking, by tipping the cup or bowlsing in a fine voicesing with a fine voicesoil or deface anything with the moutheat anything in the dirtsoil around the mouthmake two objects stick together by pressing them together with the teethmake two objects stick together by pressing them together with the teethpress together with the mouth, and make two objects stick together - the opposite of rakirukąspeak of an object as near, when it is really distantspeak of a person or place as nearmake a single grating sound, as a rat does by biting against any piece of wood or thin metaldevourconsumeexaggeratespeak of a thing as beyond its real value or as possessing qualities of which it is deficientspeak of a thing as beyond its real value, etc.say that a horse is swifter than it really issucceed in biting, drinking, singing, etc.succeed in talking, eating, biting, etc.make one laugh by talking to themtell a different thingvary a story in telling it againmake a story different in narrating ittangle with the mouth or tongue, as in cross-examining a witnessentangle with the tongue, as in cross-eaminingtangle with the teethgive of odor from the mouthhave bad breath, as after eating onions or smokingsaid of one's breath after eating such food as onionstear with the mouthtear clothing by biting, as a dog may doflatten by biting, etc.flatten an object by biting itmake fine by chewingbite into small pieces, mixing them with dust, etc. - said of a rat, when he chews wood, paper, etc., in his nextcrunch (sound) with the mouthcrunch food in the moutheat something crunchycrunch (bones) with the mouthmake a crunching sound once by gnawingmake a crunching sound, as a horse, dog, etc., does in eatingdrink a spring dry, as many persons or animals could dochew tobacco, etc., until all the juice is out of itcall aloud to anotherhalloobite hard onmake a smacking sound with the mouth, as in eatingsmack the lipstell again old intelligence, after a long time, as something newtell again old intelligence, after some time, as newsmake vegetation wither away by biting around the roots, as rabbits dochatter (teeth)make crazy or furious by talking or bitingmake great with the mouthspeak of one as great or honorablehonor or praise onespeak of a thing as better than it really isspeak of a thing as beyond its real value, etc.say that a horse is swifter than it really isexaggeratetake a stick into the mouth, and bite off a strip or splinter of the woodclearing one's throathawk (noisily clear one's throat)stretch by biting and pulling with the teethmake a pipe, not one's own, show the fire by smoking itbite an object on the very edgemake an accidental whistling sound when talkingmoisten with the mouth, as a postage stampchewchew finegrind with the teethmasticateshiver with the teethcrush, as a dog does bonesbreak a grain of corn by bitingmake a hazelnut sound by cracking it between the teethbreak a long object with the mouthbreak with the mouthbreak with the teethmake a grating or creaking noise with the teethmake a grating noise with the teethgnash the teethdig up with the mouthmake a tooth hollow by eating, causing it to achemake a curvilinear indentation on the surface of an objectwear away the teethmake an object slippery with the mouth as dogs and cats do meat which they are eatingmake "grije," or slippery with the mouth, as dogs and cats do meat which they are eatingmake deer sinew wet again by passing through the mouthbite off, as a stickbite the tongue, as some hot or freezing objectbend an object forward with the teethbend a little, as a fish hook, by bitingpick off with the mouthspeak of any object as distantspeak of any thing as distanthurt a little with the teethhurt an object a little with the mouth, or teethdepreciateunderratemake roar or cry out by biting, etc.play on a harmonicon by inhalingmake an object move by biting, or by taking in the mouth, as a horse may domake an object move by biting or taking it in the mouth, as a horse might doshake an object slowly once by bitingscoldscold one who seldom deserves itspeak rapidly, as when scoldingspeak first in a low tone, then louder and faster until one shouts or halloosspeak slowly, or in a low tone, at first, then louder and faster until it becomes "rajįnda"chew gum a long time until it becomes hardbite a line on a smooth surfacebite a long line on - the opposite of rasgojedraw the deer sinew through the teeth, when it becomes harddraw the sinew through the teeth when it is hardseparate by bitingseparate two things by biting or talkingdivide an object into two partsturn the edge of a small object by bitingturn the edge of any small object by biting until the ends almost meetsaid of the sound made by a person crying, or by an old horse or cow eatingsaid of the sound made by one crying, or by an old horse or cow eatingmake one fear a seen object or person, by talking to them about itastonish, amaze, or scare one by talking or shoutingspeak of an object or a person in sight as dangerousstop reading, because there is no more to be readsay all that can be saidtell all the news, leaving none to be toldsuck a stick of candy, etc., until all is goneshake an object slowly once, by holding between the teeth, etc.smokelet smoke escape from the mouth while smoking a pipelet smoke escape from the mouth when smoking a pipemake steam with the mouth, as in breathing cold airchew a stick into shreds or sliversdistend the mouth by taking into it food or drinkcatch by the hair in the mouthbite, as a dog does, getting the hair of the head out of order and hanging down over the foreheadbite until sharpmake blunt by chewing - this may be said of the teeth, or of any object chewedmake dull, as the teeth, by biting a bard objectspeak a language wellspeak well, as an oratorbend a little, as a fish hook, by bitingbend an object much by bitingstraighten, as an arrow, with the teethspeak straight or accuratelyoverturn a vessel with the mouth, spilling its contentstalk unintelligiblybite and raise a lump - said of persons and horsesrip a garment by catching it in the teethmiss or let slip, as in taking any object into the mouthblunder in reading, speaking, or singingmiss some wordsunable to pronounce somefinish, quit, or cease speaking, eating, drinking, reading, singing, crying, etc.finish speakingpick up food rapidly by mouthfuls, as a hen does corn or oatspick up small quantities of food rapidly and put them in the mouthmiss or let slip, as in taking any object into the mouthblunder in reading, speaking, or singingmiss some wordsunable to pronounce somemake bullets round by chewing - refers to bullets that have been flattened by shootingpull out a splinter or small nail with the teethmake warm by putting in the mouth, as the fingers, when coldmake a lariat (before plaiting) soft by sucking or bitingmake a post, tree, etc., lean by bitting it at the bottompull off, as a wooden cover, with the teethstop reading, because there is no more to be readtell all the news, leaving none to be told by otherstell all the news, leaving none to be toldsay all that can be saidsuck a piece of candy until all is gonesuck a stick of candy, etc., until all is goneuntie a knot of a cord in the mouthbite grooves in the ground, as at salt licks, in order to get at the salt - said of the animalsbite a hollow or indentation in woodpick off, as birds do berriesfail in eating, drinking, biting, talking, singing, etc.fail to finish with the mouthnot to finish eating, drinking, speaking, talking, singing, etc.talk a language in a broken wayswallow without chewingbolt down, as food, without chewingbolt down food without chewing ittake any small object into the mouth, and tear apartrefute or demolish an argumentchewpull an object over on itself with the teethspeak of another's property as bad, when it is not sobite an object full of holesbite an object full of holessaid of a rat, etc., that opens a box, etc., by bitingturn the edge of any small object by biting until the ends almost meetturn over an object with the mouthpull out by the roots with the teethloosen a tooth by pulling or biting something hardshake back and forth while holding between the teeth, so as to loosen the objectlet smoke escape from the mouth when smoking a pipemake red by bitingbite offbite off a piece from the surface of an objectshorten one's remarkssay but a few wordstouch or feel an object with the mouth, lips, tongue or teethbite off the end of a stickbreak, as a stick by biting, but not entirely in twomake manifest with the mouthspeak plainly about any thingdeclaremake appear by bitingpraisesay something in praise of onehonor with the mouthmake someone wise, intelligent, by constantly talking to themstraighten again with the teeth (by pulling)bite to death - said of dogs, wolves, coyotes, etc., as when one dog bites another, or kills deer, sheep, etc.shake an object rapidly once by taking it between the teethmake a movable object lean by biting or pulling with the teethdraw an arrow through the mouth, to get the ruffled feather end in ordercause to melt in the mouth, as ice, candy, etc.chew, as taffy, until it sticks to the teethdraw the teeth over wood or grease, leaving the marks of the teethleave an impression in flesh from biting, as a child might doleave the mark of the teeth after bitingleave the mark of the lips after suckinggash the skin by biting - said of a horse, dog, or hogmake a long story out of a few words heard from anotheramplifydrag meat, etc., along with the teeth - said of a dog, etc.bite a thimble into shape again, when it has been flattenedsaid of a long object lying under another, if a dog, cow, or horse tries to draw it out with the mouthlick clean, as a dog does a platesuck off, as women used to do the porcupine quills, putting them into the mouths to prepare them for workingnibble off, to make small holes in, as mice do in furs, thereby spoiling themtalk as if someone was a great person, although they are poor, etc. - used in ridiculebend an object much by bitingthrow down with the mouth, as beavers do treesmake an animal cross or surly by talking, shouting, or bitingspeak of a man as brave or generousmake someone brave or generous by talking to themmake unsteady by biting or shaking with the mouthshake another's decision or make them faint-hearted, by talking to themmake someone surly, bad-humored, by talking to them, laughing at them, etc.bitebite, as a fish does a hookbite, as fish do a hooktake an object in the mouth, as a pipe for smokingtake in the mouth, as a dog does a bonehold in the mouth, as a dog does a boneholdersaid if a horse should take the end of a bag, containing corn, wheat, etc., in its mouth, scattering the grain here and thereturn over a large object with the mouthspeak accurately, correctly, honestlychew into small pieces that fall from the wood (making a litter)promise to do something for another, saying that it is easy (when it is often difficult)cause to swell by bitingbite or gnaw a notch in wood, etc.gnaw a notch in wood, as a beaver doesmake a single grating sound, as a rat does by biting against any piece of wood or thin metalmake a grating sound, as when rats gnaw some thin metallic substanceeat upmake a single grating sound, as a rat does by biting against any piece of wood or thin metalmake a grating sound, as when rats gnaw some thin metallic substancehave a flow of saliva in the mouthitchscratch back and forth with the teeth, as a horse doesmake stand up by biting, as horses do the grass when they grazemake one cry by biting them or by talking to themspeak of seeing a great many animals, or of a very swift horse, or of a man as having an abundance of property - used when there is really an abundancemake grunt by bitingmake one grunt by bitingbite off the skin of an animalpull it off with the teethbite off, as the skin from an animalpull off a blanket, etc., as a dog or horse may do, to get at the food, etc., that is underneathpull off a blanket with the teeth, as a horse or dog will do, to get food that is beneathsuck out or openmake young trees, etc., dry, as rabbits do when they gnaw them at the roots in winterswallow, as foodhave swallowedfinish eating or drinkingdrink up, as watermake shallow, as a pool, by drinkingawaken one by calling or shouting to themsnuffleblow the nosehave a rattling in the throatrattle in the throatspeak in a whispering voicechoke by biting at the throat, as one dog does another, when fightingspeak of an object as surprising, or supernaturalrate it highlyspeak of anything as wonderful, surprising, extraordinarymake a mark with the teethbite intocrush with the teethcrush once with the teethbite the nailscrack small nuts by bitingdraw in with the breathinhale, as cold air, dust, etc.sucksipsuck upsip, or suck up, as soupmake a noise with the mouth, as in eating soup, etc.make a noise with the mouth, as in eating liquidsmake the sound heard when paper or calico is torn by the teethsuck up the affected part, as Indian doctors do, making a sucking soundmake cry or shriek by bitingmake the sound heard when one crunches crackers, etc., in the mouthbite through, as a piece of meat, and hit the teeth against something solid, as a bone or skewer concealed in the meatgnaw, as a dog does a bone, making a noise with the mouthgnaw a bonemake snarl by biting or talking - said of dogsmake xriwe by eating, as a melonwhatsoever is penetrated suddenly by biting, and is eaten with the juice dripping from it, as a watermelon, is described thuseat juicy foodmake fruit, etc., juicy by eating itsmoke a pipe, sending small sparks outpierce, as the flesh, with the teethbite a hole through an objectpull off skin or bark with the teethpull or draw out with the teethoverturn a cup, etc., suddenly while drinking from it (implying the spilling of the contents)spill water from the mouth in one spotmake the mother thin by sucking too long, as in the case when the young is not weaned soon enoughenfeeble by biting, as one dog does anotherwear out a person by talking too much to themsoften with the mouth, as something frozenmake one sleepy by talkingtalk one to sleepcause a branch, blade, or ear of corn to break and hang down, instead of remaining as at first - said of a cow, etc., biting at an ear or blade on a cornstalkpeel off the hull or rind with the teethpull off the bark from a stick, etc., with the teethmake a movable object lean by biting or pulling with the teethcrush, as candy, by eating iteat, as hay, scattering it from place to placebite and bruise the fleash underneath, without breaking the skinhold back with the mouthdissuade from walking, going, or fightinggnaw a hole inspeak incorrectly, as from inability or from ignorance
ra-2 1It is prefixed to a large class of verbs and verbal roots, and signifies that the action is done with the mouth, lips, teeth, or tongue - by biting, talking, etc.
ra-2 2It is prefixed to adjectives, and sometimes to nouns, changing them into verbs signifying "to speak of as such," or "to make so with the mouth"
-rarahcause (you cause)verbCausative Subject 2sfxunspec. comp. form-wawarayou cause himverbCausative Subject 2sfxyou cause herverbCausative Subject 2sfxyou cause itverbCausative Subject 2sfxyou make himverbCausative Subject 2sfxyou make herverbCausative Subject 2sfxyou make itverbCausative Subject 2sfxyou letverbCausative Subject 2sfxyou resurrectyou cause meyou make meyou forgive (him/her/it)you cause yourselfyou make yourselfyou-all cause himyou-all cause heryou-all cause ityou-all make himyou-all make heryou-all make ityou-all letyou cause themyou make themyou forgive themyou forgive usyou love (deep love)you have a deep love for, more than is expressed by grahi
ra'akirathgathgawerah'-AH-kee-rah-thgah-THGAH-waymake several objects stick together by pressing on them with the teeth, etc.transitive verbpress together with the mouth, and make the two objects stick together - the opposite of rakirukątransitive verbunspec. comp. form ofra'akirathgaweunspec. comp. form ofra-2ki-arathgaweComparewi'akirathgaweunspec. comp. form ofwi-1akirathgawe
ra'akirathgawerah'-AH-kee-rah-thgah-waymake two objects stick together by pressing them together with the teethtransitive verbantrakiruką 1unspec. comp. form ofra-2kirukąunspec. comp. form ofra-2ki-arathgaweDorsey notes that this is the opposite of "rakiruką."Comparewi'akirathgaweunspec. comp. form ofwi-1akirathgawemake several objects stick together by pressing on them with the teeth, etc.press together with the mouth, and make the two objects stick together - the opposite of rakiruką
ra'akiwatagerah'-AH-kee-wah-tah-gaymake two objects stick together by pressing them together with the teethtransitive verbantrakiruką 1unspec. comp. form ofra-2kirukąpress together with the mouth, and make two objects stick together - the opposite of rakirukątransitive verbunspec. comp. form ofra-2akiwatageDorsey notes that this term is the opposite of "rakiruką."Comparewa'akiwatageunspec. comp. form ofwa-2akiwatagewi'akiwatageunspec. comp. form ofwi-1akiwatage
ra'asgerah'-AH-sgayunspec. comp. form ofra-2asgefree variant ofasgifree variant ofra'asgiunspec. comp. form ofra-2asgi
ra'asgirah'-AH-sgeespeak of an object as near, when it is really distanttransitive verbspeak of a person or place as neartransitive verbunspec. comp. form ofra-2asgiFree Variantra'asgerah'-AH-sgay
ra'axerah'-AH-xaymake a single grating sound, as a rat does by biting against any piece of wood or thin metaltransitive verbunspec. comp. form ofra-2*'axefree variant of*x'axeComparerax'axeunspec. comp. form ofra-2*x'axerax'exeunspec. comp. form ofra-2*x'exe
ra'eðerah'-AY-ðaydevourverbconsumeverbunspec. comp. form ofra-2Comparerax'eðeunspec. comp. form ofra-2
ra'etarah'-AY-tahexaggeratetransitive verbspeak of a thing as beyond its real value or as possessing qualities of which it is deficienttransitive verbspeak of a thing as beyond its real value, etc.transitive verbsay that a horse is swifter than it really istransitive verbunspec. comp. form ofra-2etaCompareradąnraunspec. comp. form ofra-2dąnraru'eta
ra'įrah'-EEⁿsucceed in biting, drinking, singing, etc.verbsucceed in talking, eating, biting, etc.verbunspec. comp. form ofra-2*'įComparebo'įunspec. comp. form ofbo-*'įda'įunspec. comp. form ofda-2*'įru'įunspec. comp. form ofru-*'įwa'įunspec. comp. form ofwa-2*'įwi'įunspec. comp. form ofwi-1*'įspeak in a whisper, as when one has a sore throat, or has lost their voiceunsuccessful in eating, drinking, talking, biting, etc.
ra'į skunyirah'-EEⁿ SKOO-nyeeunsuccessful in eating, drinking, talking, biting, etc.verbunspec. comp. form ofra'įunspec. comp. form ofra-2*'į-skunyiComparewa'į skunyiunspec. comp. form ofwa'į-skunyiwi'į skunyiunspec. comp. form ofwi'į-skunyi
ra'i'sharah'-EE'-shahmake one laugh by talking to themtransitive verbunspec. comp. form ofra-2i'shaFree Variantra'ik'sharah'-EEK'-shahCompareru'i'shaunspec. comp. form ofru-i'shawa'i'shaunspec. comp. form ofwa-2i'shawi'i'shaunspec. comp. form ofwi-1i'sha
ra'idąndąrah'-EE-dahⁿn-dahⁿtell a different thingtransitive verbvary a story in telling it againtransitive verbmake a story different in narrating ittransitive verbIch'e isda'idąndasji ke.You tell very different words.unspec. comp. form ofra-2idąndąCompareru'idąndąunspec. comp. form ofru-idąndąvary the story or speak different words each time that one talks
ra'idąndąnąnąngerah'-EE-dahⁿn-dahⁿ-NAHⁿ-nahⁿng-ayvary the story or speak different words each time that one talkstransitive verbunspec. comp. form ofra'idąndąunspec. comp. form ofra-2idąndąinąnąnąnge1
ra'ik'sharah'-EEK'-shahunspec. comp. form ofra-2ik'shafree variant ofi'shafree variant ofra'i'shaunspec. comp. form ofra-2i'sha
ra'ikirubrąrah'-EE-kee-roo-brahⁿtangle with the mouth or tongue, as in cross-examining a witnesstransitive verbentangle with the tongue, as in cross-eaminingtransitive verbtangle with the teethtransitive verbunspec. comp. form ofra-2ikirubrąComparewa'ikirubrąunspec. comp. form ofwa-2ikirubrąwi'ikirubrąunspec. comp. form ofwi-1ikirubrą
ra'ųra-'OOⁿunspec. comp. form ofra-1Free Variantða'ųða-'OOⁿSecond-Person Singular (you)
ra'ųwirah-'OOⁿ-weeunspec. comp. form ofra-1-wiFree Variantða'ųwiða-'OOⁿ-weeSecond-Person Plural (you-all)
rabrąrah-BRAHⁿgive of odor from the mouthverbhave bad breath, as after eating onions or smokingverbunspec. comp. form ofra-2brąDorsey notes, "Said of one's breath after eating such food as onions."Comparerubrąunspec. comp. form ofru-brą
rabraðerah-BRAH-ðaytear with the mouthverbtear clothing by biting, as a dog may doverbunspec. comp. form ofra-2*braðeComparegibraðeunspec. comp. form ofgi-1*braðewabraðeunspec. comp. form ofwa-2*braðewibraðeunspec. comp. form ofwi-1*braðe
rabrathgerah-BRAH-thgayflatten by biting, etc.verbflatten an object by biting itverbunspec. comp. form ofra-2brathgeComparenąmbrathge2unspec. comp. form ofną- 1brathge 1rubrathgeunspec. comp. form ofru-brathge 1wabrathgeunspec. comp. form ofwa-2brathgewibrathgeunspec. comp. form ofwi-1brathge