Otoe-Missouria - English


*'ą'ahⁿliftverbcarryliftlift uppull uplift an object by pullingweighlift an object by putting the foot under itliftlift uplift an object by pullinglift a heavy object by putting the hands under itraiseweighlift up, as a heavy log, by pushing a crowbar under it and bearing upwardslift by bearing down on a crowbar or leverlift a heavy log by bearing down on a crowbar or lever (instead of pushing up the end of a lever)lift up a heavy log by bearing down on a crowbar or lever
'age'AH-gayfree variants'agey'agefree variant ofy'agefree variant of'agefree variant ofs'ages'agefree variant of'agefree variant ofy'ageunspec. comp. formwą'aold man
*'age'AH-gayfree variant of*sh'age
*'axe'AH-xayfree variant of*x'axeunspec. comp. formra'axemake a single grating sound, as a rat does by biting against any piece of wood or thin metal
'e'ayit is that onethe oneit is that oneit is the onethose whohe who hasthe bad onesthose lying down
*'e'ayscatterverbdisarrangeverbscatter right and left, by pushing with a fork or shovel, as wet wheat or hay after a rain, in order to let it drydisarrange or scatter by lying or blowing onscatter by lying or blowing ondisarrange by blowing on
*'exe'AY-xayfree variant of*x'exeunspec. comp. form ofx'e
'eeⁿtemporal subordinate clausewhenRusdąnye'į hįhiwi ke/ki.It was finished when we got there.while...wereThis carries the idea of "While we were working..." or "While we were eating..."beforeWa'onye'į hįhiwi ke/ki.They were shot before we got there.whenwhen (in the future)
*'į'eeⁿsucceedverbsucceed in shootingshoot and hit the mark or wound (perhaps kill)succeed in cooking, heating, etc.make foodsucceed in biting, drinking, singing, etc.succeed in talking, eating, biting, etc.succeed in writing, rowing, pulling, etc.succeed in pushing, punching, thrusting, writing, etc.succeed in pressing, bearing down on, blowing on, etc.
'sagara'SAH-gah-rahcrackedadjective-verbcracked (dish)adjective-verbunspec. comp. form of'sage
'sage'SAH-gaycrackverbcrackedcracked (dish)crack by freezing
'ooⁿdotransitive verbHįngi'ų gare.Do it for me.Dananyida dagure ra'ų?What did you do yesterday?didtransitive verbworktransitive verbdo the work of a judge or agenttransitive verbusetransitive verbunspec. comp. formmąnðe 'ų kidąwemaketransitive verbIyą hįngi'ų gare.Make me one.unspec. comp. formchebanyi mįngri 'ųNyisdą Bat'ųnąWąngegihi Wa'ųmiacttransitive verbbehavetransitive verbplaytransitive verbThe sense of "play" here refers to a specific game. For example, the game "makuje" would use "makuje 'ų" which in Otoe-Missouria is rendered as "doing" the game whereas in English, a gloss translation would be to "play" the game.havetransitive verbThe sense of "have" here does not refer to possession but instead refers to doing something. For example, the English expression "They are having a dance" does not refer to what they have, but what they are doing. In those situations, this term would be used to express "have".treat; hence, to punish a criminal (treating them as they deserve)transitive verbFirst-Person Dual Conjugationhį'ųheeⁿ-'OOⁿFirst-Person Plural Conjugationhį'ųwiheeⁿ-'OOⁿ-weeFirst-Person Singular Conjugationha'ųhah-'OOⁿSecond-Person Plural Conjugationra'ųwirah-'OOⁿ-weeSecond-Person Singular Conjugationra'ųra-'OOⁿThird-Person Plural Conjugation (definite)'ųwi'OOⁿ-weeThird-Person Plural Conjugation (indefinite)'ųnye'OOⁿ-nyayDorsey notes for this term (his orthography has been transliterated to our own), "This verb is used in a variety of ways: (1) In connection with another verb it modifies the signification of that verb; as waruðe ke, he takes them; but waruðe sdą ų ke, he takes them repeatedly, habitually, he receives them; waruthąngesdą 'ų ke, he sins habitually, he does nothing but sin; (2) When used with a noun or adjective immediately preceding it, that preceding word determins its meaning; as, Jiwere ha'ų ke, I act the Otoe; Tathage ha'ų ke, I have the ague; Ugisige dagure ra'ų je, What is your sickness? Mąyą pi 'ų ke, he made peace; (3) Used in connection with nouns, or with adjectives that can not be conjugated, it gives to these words the sense of verbs; as Mą ha'ų ke, I am farming; that is, I am working the land."impossiblework till night, without intermissionwhat he didbeneficialcurativedo something quicklyroll diceimpracticablethat can not be made or doneunfit for use, useless: said of toolsusingwithdid it andhe did it againgo to run a raceMarchmonth of doing nothingHe For Whom They Made a VillageHe Whom They Made Their Chiefhowwhywhereforewhat is he/she/it doing?spread out or open out a blanket or robe on a horseplace one thing on top of anotherplace one object on top of anotherhe/she/it is the one who did itbybe the cause of; usually in a bad sensebe the cause of troublebear the blamebe the cause of trouble to anotherbe worthy of blamebeing made by someone elsehe/she did it and...do of one's own accorddo or make something for anothermake with the mouthdo todo formake formake withto do (to, for)make out of or by means ofdo as another has said or doneshoot a gun, if the subject be distanthe is using a gunfarmfarmingwhite personwhite peoplewhite maniron makershe works in ironplay the game "makuje"trap, as the beaver, fox, prairie wolf, and big wolfpitchforkforkJunecultivating monthstring a bowstring one's bowheatwarminflamefarmmake peacepeace makerlove from the very heartmake joy for someonemake someone satisfiedmake with the handplay a fiddledragdrag a loadtinderboxmake a firekindle a firefixfix uprepairpreparemake upmake goodrepair something for anotherrepair something for another, who is the ownermisbehavealwaysregularlyhabituallyrepeatedlyoftenoften timesnothing butdo nothing butsometimesdecoydecoy an animalmake with the footpile in a heap, etc.pile in a heapworkworkwork, in generaldo different kinds of workChief Makermisbehavedo writingtooltoolsimplementinstrumentinstrumentsarmormachineweaponUsefulUsefulHelpfulFemale Who Made an Experimentdifficultycelebration
'ų chexi'ooⁿ CHAY-xeeimpossibleverbunspec. comp. form ofchexi
'ų gasų ahąhe'oo gah-SOOⁿ ah-HAHⁿ-haywork till night, without intermissionverbunspec. comp. form ofgasųahąhe2
'ų gasų ahąhework till night, without intermission
'ų jirebeginverbbeginsverb
'ų nąha'OOⁿ nahⁿ-HAHwhat he didunspec. comp. form ofnąha2free variant ofnąhe1
'ų pita'OOⁿ PEE-tahbeneficialcurativeunspec. comp. form ofpi1-ta2
'ų rehi'OOⁿ RAH-heedo something quicklyverbroll diceverbunspec. comp. form ofrehicomposed ofre2-hiThis term refers to doing something quickly, and is often used when the specific action is understood. An example of this would be throwing dice in a game. While the actual act of throwing is not explicitly mentioned here, it is understood as an action that is something that is done with a certain quickness.
'ų skunyiwahi'OOⁿ SKOO-nyee-WAH-heeimpracticableverbunfit for use, useless: said of toolsadjectiveunspec. comp. form of-skunyi-wahiunspec. comp. form of-wa1-hi
'ųną1'OOⁿ-nahⁿdid it andunspec. comp. form of-ną
'ųną2'OOⁿ-nahⁿusingverbwithverbNąinge ha'ųną, sųnkenyi uhajį ke/ki.I hit the dog with a stick.Mąnðe wirojį 'ųną, mųnje ch'ehi ke/ki.He/she killed the bear with an iron club.This sense covers the idea of "with" in English as in "I hit the ball WITH a bat." However in Jiwere the sentence would be rendered "I hit the ball USING a bat."composed of-nąAt its core, this term is more accurately translated as "using." However the idea is often glossed as "with" in English. The prefix i- is usually adequate for expressing "with." However, it is not used if the verb already begins with a vowel. If the verb already begins with a vowel, 'ųną is used. If it does not, the prefix i- is used. 'Ųną is also used if the verb uses a causative conjugation at the end, where prefixes such as a-, i-, and u- are not used.
'ųnye'OOⁿ-nyayunspec. comp. form of-nyeThird-Person Plural (indefinite)

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