wa-1wahthempfxInų ware gare.Go with them.Watogre ra re.Go with them.unspec. comp. formWąngegihi Wa'ųmiwe'i1severalpfxMųnje waata ke.I saw several bears.This is a vague "several" in regards to "them." It does not literally mean "several."somethingverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxunspec. comp. formmąhį wirujewi-2anybodyverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxitverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxthingverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxindefinite object prefixverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxdetransitivizerverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxWhat this means is that "wa-" can take a transitive verb and turn it into an intransitive verb. Since the root form of transitive verbs in Otoe-Missouria have the understood "he/she/it" as the object, adding "wa-" to indicate "something" or a general "it" acts as a sort of "whoever/whatever." For example, the verb "ruje" means "he/she/it eats it" but adding "wa-" to make it "waruje" means eating in general or "eat whatever."unspec. comp. formWach'ehi Manyiwoy'ingeintransitivizerverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxvalence reducerverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxA good explanation of valence reduction starts on page 45 of "Osage Grammar" by Carolyn Quintero.a sign of the subject of an actionverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxone whoverbsomething, detransitivizerpfxThird-Person Singular to Third-Person PluralwograshigeWOH-grah-shee-gayThis particular suffix "wa-" roughly covers the English ideas of something, it, them, etc. When expressing the idea of "something", it is often not translated but instead serves to either turn a verb into a noun (wa- + ruje (eat it) = waruje (food)) or it takes a transitive verb and makes it intransitive (detransitivizer/valence reducer). For example, ruje = eat it; waruje = eat.throw it on themgive, as a disease, to themwalk over a road in the footsteps of those who have gone on some time beforecarry any curvilinear object, etc., on top of a pack for others or at the request of the ownerscarry for others any upright object on top of a packone who dwells in a lodge not their owngather (as children)tell them thathe said to themsay as follows to or about them as in reproving them, or in speaking for or against themleave them undisturbed (animate objects)clothes brush or wispnewborn babywe (2) forgive themwe (3+) forgive themsight on a gun barrel, next to the muzzleshoveliron boilerbig iron boilerpepperGiving While WalkingFemale Who Gave Away Presents As She Walkedfarmerland partitioningallotmentdragging polestravois polescross a stream in a canoe and carry others across (one's own)ferry others (one's own) over a streaminkwater used for writingmake unsteady by biting or shaking with the mouthshake another's decision or make them faint-hearted, by talking to themcall by nameunsettlemake unsteady by pullingapple pieFollowing Tracksworkworkwork, in generaldo different kinds of workhurt another by accident or mistakeinjure or hurt one, no relation, by accident or mistakesindo wrongsin, do wrong, but not deliberatelyI forgive themI have themI brought themI saw themI saw (several)give one's property at the death of a relationshoot down all the persons or animals attackedexterminate thembreadlight breadwheatwheat breadflourmurdererGoing KillingFemale Who Murdershe/she/it sees themseestarewhite breadlight breadShriveled By HeatbileThis is nyi ði or nyi to, "yellow or blue water," and is bitter. When it is small, the doctors remove it from the patient by swallowing it, as they pretend, which act they call waði ruðe. The waði is sometimes vomited up.gathercorncorn on the cobmaizemake something for them (said of what is new)repair something for themmake something to give to themservemake war against themdistribute among them, as horsesdivide one's own horses, etc., between themteach a person several thingscarry other persons' property for them, its shape not being specifiedtread on their property for (or against) themtread on their property at their requestkeep any thing for otherskeep their property for them, as at their requestcover or conceal something for otherscover their property for them, at their requestdesire what belongs to otherscovet some of their propertytake, receive, or accept, as ponies, for another personrule, judge, or govern for themdecide for themforgive themthey (indefinite) forgive themspeak againstask forcall to them (animate objects)drive animals for other personswrite to or for themsweep or dust for them with a broom or brush (by pushing motion, not by striking)cancel or forgive a debt for othersgo for the persons or animals, not one's owncome with the persons or animals, not one's ownteachteacherteacher (male)missionaryclassFemale Who CommandsFemale Who Commandspick upgatherspeak saucily to themforce them to do it by insisting on itcarry several things on the backpacksomething carried on the backbundleloadpound corn in a mortar for oneselfcontend against themcontend with themmake roommakes roomgive placegives placeThe ShooterGood Marksmanpoorvery poorpitiablewretchedmiserableHe Who Jumps On the Man He Is About to KillHe Who Puts His Foot Down On an Object to Prevent Its Escapekickhearkick down objects on them (animate objects)stand by otherstread on othersChief Makerhave or keep them (animate objects)He Sits Keeping Itlearn thingswe (2) learnyou forgive themyou-all forgive themparagraphspeak incorrectly, as from inability or from ignoranceyou see themcountnumberfewgrindgrindingground cornwish to make or own objects similar to those made by otherssee what others have received, and to covet or desire similar gifts from the donorscovet some of their propertyclean themcleandrawingscold, chide, reprove, or rebuke themchide, rebuke, reprove, or scold themscolddrainspillfrybakecookcook somethingpiecakecook (male)baker (male)cook (female)baker (female)prayworshipworshipsaskasksask a favorentreatrequest somethingpapertake or receive them (animate objects)cover them (animate objects) with blankets, robes, or shawlsmess upget out of ordertableeat onfoodeateat, in generaleat different things togethereat somethingmealfeastchewbuybuy them (animate objects)tradetrade (in general)tradersellbundlebundlelay hands onput the hands on for evilmedicine bundlebundlesacred bundlewar bundlegropefeel aroundmarry (of a woman)marrytake a husbandOtoewashwash laundrywash clothesshake upKneeling to Themgutsinsidesgamewhat remains, as of an ear of corn, after pushing off some of the grainswhat remains of ice after it breaks up in the rivermedicine manmedicine menIndian doctordoctorconjurorRaw EaterHe Who Eats RawMelonThat is Eaten RawfruitcerealoatmealdessertHe Who Is Coming With ThemComing Along with ThemFemale Who Was With ThemShe Goes With Themdrive them, as horses or a herd of cattledrive them (many animals)sewsewingbooklettersomething writtenwritingwrite somethingget creditgive the alarm of the approaching foe, by waving a blanketroll, as a wheelbarrow, over themshell corn by pushing off the grains with a small stickput a piece of meat on a spit before a fire, in order to roast itofficialwashboardburybury a bodysacredsacred thingholymysteriousmysterious medicinehonor or respect themscaredcarriondead animalpoorlie on them (animate objects)lie on somethinglancesword-lancespearprickstingmusiccelebrate the calumet dancecelebrate the pipe danceperform all the ceremonies connected with the calumet or pipe dancebirdfowltell or command his relations or friends to do anythingcover or conceal one's relations, friends, or livestockgo or come for one's own property, when two or more animate objects are meantgo or come for them, one's own friends, kindred, horses, etc.dispute with them, one's kinsmenwatch over them, one's own relation, animals, etc.stand by one's own friends or relationsdefend themstand by them, one's relations, friends or livestock, to defend or protect themleftovershave or keep them, one's own horses, etc.speak evil or complain about one's relations or friendsspeak evil or complain about one's own relations or friendshonor or respect one's own parents, relations, or friendsforgetwash them (animate objects), one's own sheep, children, etc.sacred storylegendstorystoriesbedtime talessleepman talesdiscusstell a storytell storiesswap yarnsprophesyattack the foe, chasing them and forcing them to abandon their property to the pursuersforce them to abandon their property by attacking them, chasing them off, etc.knock them down by strikingkill them by striking themstun or kill them by blows, etc.know the ways, habits, thoughts, etc., of otherssay to them something good or bad about others - used in replies, when a strong assertion is madeHe Who Talked For Themobject to their doing somethingprohibit themdeny to or withhold from them (without the idea of scolding)Like ThemHe is Like ThemAs Good As AnybodyFemale Who Is Like ThemOne As Good As Anybodyfine one's own ponies, etc., on hunting for themrulertape measuremilemeasurerulebushel (when applied to agricultural products)any measuring instrumentstringpack stringstrapcord, etc., by means of which a pack is fastened to the backbridlelariatreinslong thongthat which makes one proud - fine clothing, etc.find them by accident, as ponies, etc., which one had not lostfind ponies, etc., that one had not been searching foralongside ofalongside of themsuspect themthink of themstringtiefind them, the animals or people for whom search has been madefind them purposefullyshamedashamedcounselgive them good advicecouncil memberclub (weapon)something to strike withinstrument used for hittingwar-club (with the iron point)hit them with it (used after the name of the weapon)check them by scolding, put a stop to, forbid or oppose themsievesign postgourd rattlequestionmake unsteady by weight or pressureforkspeargardendifficulthard timedifficultyspeak or talk with thempay a friendly visit to another tribehit or strike for othersstrike their property for themmake them get out of the waymake them flee, abandoning their land or property to the pursuerstell something to personstell something for personstell persons something about their relations or propertydiseasedish outserveheaddresshatschoolschoolhousecookboilto cook, boil thingswinwin somethinggain or win from themconquer them (animate objects)hit themStanding One Who StrikesBig StrikeTo Use or Strike With a Whipgiftgivegive, in generalgive to themtamequietgentlemildmild, gentle, as an animal. Not used of personsshirtblouseclothesclothinggarmentcoatclosetplace to store thingsput away a standing object in a box, etc.pocket in hunting shirt, coat, or vest (garments on the body)pocket in a hunting shirt, vest, or in any upper body garment, but not in pantsclosetreceptaclenewsstorylegendtelltell a storytell about somethingtell newstell, relate, declare, or publish, as newsspakecomplain of them, who are not one's relationsalligatorcrocodilesucker-insucks them init sucks them inmillgrist millovenpiecakesurround themfeedfeed (for animals)storebe out of patience with them, no relationstired of or disgusted with themhelphave plentywell suppliedsomething madedrawing or picturepiece of carved work or statuarypull open a box, barrel, bundle, etc.take up food again from a canoerob the holes of the gound mice of the beans which they containgo after themfollow themgatheringfestivitydoingspowwowencampmentdanceagreeablepleasantfillpocketcontainerjoin themfollow themin company